A collection of design patterns/idioms in Python


A collection of design patterns and idioms in Python.

When an implementation is added or modified, be sure to update this file and rerun (eg. ./ to keep the output comments at the bottom up to date.

Current Patterns:

Creational Patterns:

Pattern Description
abstract_factory use a generic function with specific factories
borg a singleton with shared-state among instances
builder instead of using multiple constructors, builder object receives parameters and returns constructed objects
factory_method delegate a specialized function/method to create instances
lazy_evaluation lazily-evaluated property pattern in Python
pool preinstantiate and maintain a group of instances of the same type
prototype use a factory and clones of a prototype for new instances (if instantiation is expensive)

Structural Patterns:

Pattern Description
3-tier data<->business logic<->presentation separation (strict relationships)
adapter adapt one interface to another using a white-list
bridge a client-provider middleman to soften interface changes
composite encapsulate and provide access to a number of different objects
decorator wrap functionality with other functionality in order to affect outputs
facade use one class as an API to a number of others
flyweight transparently reuse existing instances of objects with similar/identical state
front_controller single handler requests coming to the application
mvc model<->view<->controller (non-strict relationships)
proxy an object funnels operations to something else

Behavioral Patterns:

Pattern Description
chain apply a chain of successive handlers to try and process the data
catalog general methods will call different specialized methods based on construction parameter
chaining_method continue callback next object method
command bundle a command and arguments to call later
iterator traverse a container and access the container's elements
mediator an object that knows how to connect other objects and act as a proxy
memento generate an opaque token that can be used to go back to a previous state
observer provide a callback for notification of events/changes to data
publish_subscribe a source syndicates events/data to 0+ registered listeners
registry keep track of all subclasses of a given class
specification business rules can be recombined by chaining the business rules together using boolean logic
state logic is organized into a discrete number of potential states and the next state that can be transitioned to
strategy selectable operations over the same data
template an object imposes a structure but takes pluggable components
visitor invoke a callback for all items of a collection

Fundamental Patterns:

Pattern Description
delegation_pattern an object handles a request by delegating to a second object (the delegate)


Pattern Description
blackboard architectural model, assemble different sub-system knowledge to build a solution, AI approach - non gang of four pattern
graph_search graphing algorithms - non gang of four pattern
hsm hierarchical state machine - non gang of four pattern